Monday, 5 June 2017

Tutorial in Miniature: Hans Holbein the Younger's A Lady with a Squirrel and a Starling, around 1526-8.




Click on the links below to see other tutorials in this series:







Hans Holbein the Younger was born in 1497 in Augsburg, Germany, into an artistic family. He trained with his father, Hans Holbein the Elder, who was an accomplished religious painter, woodcut artist and illustrator. Early on in his career, Holbein moved to Basel, Switzerland, where he followed in his father’s footsteps painting alterpieces and illustrations, and where he undertook his first portrait commissions. Religious unrest in Europe forced Holbein to seek work in England, where he gained employment in King Henry VIII’s court. He had several high society patrons including Sir Thomas More, Anne Boleyn and King Henry VIII himself. Notably, it was Holbein that painted the now infamous portrait of Anne of Cleves prior to Henry’s marriage – fortunately for Holbein, Henry VIII blamed Cromwell for this disastrous marriage arrangement and not the artist.

Towards the end of his life, Holbein began to paint miniatures, mounting some of them on playing cards. Can you imagine painting a miniature Holbein in miniature?

Holbein the younger died in 1543, possibly of the plague.

You will need:

-          300gsm smooth watercolour paper
-          Sharp craft knife, cutting mat and steel ruler
-          Sharp Pencil and an eraser
-          2 or 3 water pots
-          Size 00 watercolour brush with a good point
-          Size 0000 watercolour brush with a good point
-          Winsor and Newton Designers gouache paints
o   Primary Blue
o   Ultramarine
o   Primary Yellow
o   Zinc White
o   Primary Red
o   Burnt Umber
o   Yellow Ochre
o   Permanent Green Middle
o   Burnt Sienna 

A Lady with a Squirrel and a Starling

Holbein’s painting A Lady with a Squirrel and a Starling measures 56 x 38.8 cm. To find how big yours needs to be simply divide these measurements by the scale you're working in. On a 1:12th scale, dividing by 12 will give us  4.67 x 3.2cm; for 1:16th we need to divide by 16 to get 3.8 x 2.43cm; and for 1:24th divide by 24 giving 2.33 x 1.6260. 

I'm working at a 1:12th scale.

Using your steel rule and craft knife, cut out the watercolour paper to the correct size. I recommend adding 5mm all around the edges to allow for framing – you can always trim this off later if your chosen frame does not require the extra allowance.

Step 1

Divide your canvas into 4 x 4 equally spaced sections (you will need your ruler for this bit). They will not be squares since your canvas is rectangular, but I will call them squares for simplicity’s sake. Please draw your grid lines very faintly so that you don’t need to worry about paint coverage later on.
Starting in one of the corners, copy the black lines into your chosen square. Methodically moving from one square to its adjoining square, continue to copy the drawing until yours is complete. Try not to be tempted to jump around the grid – it is all too easy to make a mistake when counting squares and very frustrating to find that the drawing doesn’t meet in the middle!



When you have finished, erase as many of the grid lines as you can with a soft eraser. Be gentle to avoid damaging the delicate watercolour paper surface.

Step 2

Using the brush tip of a 00 sized round brush pick up a small amount of Primary Blue and wipe it onto your clean palette or mixing plate. Clean your brush and repeat picking up Ultramarine and Primary Yellow. Mix to form a slightly greeny blue colour and using your size 00 brush, paint the background. Add a touch more water as you move down the painting so that is it a little darker at the top than at the bottom. Turn the painting as you go so that the point of the brush is against the line of the drawing, this will help you to stay off the areas that you want to keep clean.



Step 3

Dip the end of your clean brush directly into the Primary Red tube and wipe it on the palette. Clean your brush and dip it into the Primary Yellow tube. Mix this into the Primary Red on your palette. Now take around twice that amount of Zinc White and mix into the Primary Yellow/Primary Red combination. Test the colour on a scrap of paper. Is it flesh coloured? Perfect! If not, keep adding the tiniest amount of whichever colour is missing – if it’s too yellow, add red, if it’s too red, add yellow, if it’s too strong add white – until you have a flesh colour. It’s not easy, so be patient.  Use your flesh colour to paint the face, hands and neck.



Step 4

Now add a little more Zinc White to one third of your flesh tone to make a highlighting colour and allow the rest to dry out a little. Removing water from the mix will intensify the colour, which is needed for lowlights. When we’re finished with the face we do not want to be able to see any pencil lines at all. Note - if your pencil lines are heavy like mine, you might like to paint a few more layers of your base flesh colour over the entire face before you begin with the high and low lights. Swap to the 0000 brush and paint highlights down the nose, on the forehead, top of the cheek bones and chin. Add lowlights to the hollows of the cheeks, the side of the nose, under the chin, the eyebrows, the top and bottom of the right eye and the side of the neck.  Move onto the hands and paint highlights on the tops of the fingers and right hand, and lowlights on the underside of the fingers.



Step 5

Add a touch of Primary Blue to the flesh mix and add shadows to the nose outline, the nostrils, under the chin and under the double chin, underneath the eyes, the crease line on the eye lid, the middle line of the lips and the underside of the lowlights on the hands.



Step 6

Dip the end of your clean 0000 brush directly into the tube of Zinc White and use this to re-establish the whites of the eyes. Picking up the paint directly from the tube means that it will give the maximum opaqueness to cover the skin tone that is currently where the whites of the eyes should be.



Step 7

Add a touch of Primary Yellow to the edge of the blue mix that we used on the background to make a green-grey and dot in the iris of both eyes. Make the irises big enough to disappear underneath the top lid – if you can see the whole of her iris she will look surprised. Mix Burnt Umber and Ultramarine in roughly equal quantities to make a medium to dark grey and use this to add a single dot for the pupil. Now using the same grey, paint along the upper eyelash line.



Add a touch of Primary Red to your base flesh colour from step 3 and dot in the cupid’s bow of the lips. Take a tiny amount of Zinc White and add the smallest highlight to the lower lips.

Paint the two sides of the hair in Burnt Umber leaving a little gap where the parting is. Darken the top of the hair where the cap is casting a small shadow using a touch of Ultramarine mixed with Burnt Umber. Soften the edges of the hair by tickling it with a clean damp brush. 

Add a little Burnt Umber to the right hand side of the right hand eyebrow to make it a little more defined.


Step 8

Mix Burnt Umber and Ultramarine in equal amounts straight from the tube to make a very dark grey/black. You can use a ready mixed Ivory Black if you have one. I tend to shy away from ready mixed blacks as they tend to be flat and uninspiring, however on this scale I don’t think it matters much. While the mix is fresh, paint in the darkest of the blacks on the dress including the creases and the shadows. 




Step 9

Add some water to your dark grey/black and paint in the rest of the black dress, keeping it darker on the outside edge of her right arm, and where her right arm casts a shadow to the left of the squirrel. 




Step 10

Mix some fresh dark grey/black and using directional brush strokes following the feathers, paint the starling. Leave some white patches showing through to define the wing. When the dark grey/black is fully dry, add a few Zinc White dots on the underside of the starling’s chest and up the neck. Add a single white dot for the eye highlight. Paint a line of Yellow Ochre along the centre of the beak.



Step 11

Next we’ll tackle the foliage. Mix a nice fresh spring green using Primary Yellow and Primary Blue, a mid green using Primary Yellow and Ultramarine and a very dark green by adding a touch of Primary Red to Permanent Green Middle.  Now using pure Primary Yellow straight from the tube, paint over all of the leaves. Use dots and dashes to establish a foliage effect and add in a few extras peeping out from behind the lady’s right hand arm on the left of the painting.



Step 12

Paint in the mid greens and dark greens to give the leaves structure, leaving some Primary Yellow showing along some of the edges to make it look like the sun is shining. Add a tiny touch of Burnt Umber to the edge of your mid green to make a greeny-brown for the branches, this needs to be more on the green side than brown. Firstly paint the branches in Primary Yellow, then paint over using your branch mix, again leaving some Primary Yellow to show through where the sun is catching the branches. 



Step 13

To give the white hat structure we need to paint the shadows rather than paint the hat. Mix Burnt Umber with Primary Blue and split this into two parts on your palette. Add a touch of Yellow Ochre to one half and add water until this mix is very pale. Test it on a scrap of paper to make sure that it isn’t too strong before adding it to your masterpiece, painting in the “horizontal” lines of fur on the hat. Start with the point on the right hand side of the hat (left hand side of the picture) and paint a line that, if it were to continue beyond the hat, would meet with the outside corner of the lady’s eye. There are 5 more or less equally spaced lines above this one, no line at the very top, and six lines below this one – the very last one is close to the edge of the fabric. Stop your lines before you reach the front of the hat.



Step 14

Using the same mix, add in shadows to the hat on the left hand side of the painting, all the way from the point to below the lady’s right ear. Paint a line just inside the edge of the hat all the way around the face – this will give the hat a luxurious depth. Now add water to the mix that does not contain Yellow Ochre and strengthen the shadows on the far left hand side of the picture, around the outside edge of the hat. Again, test your paint for strength before you apply it. Strengthen the shadow along the bottom of the hat by the lady’s neck. Finally, using pure Zinc White, re-establish the hat on the left hand side of the lady’s face (the right hand side of the painting).



Step 15

Moving on to the top of the lady’s dress, mix Primary Yellow with a touch of Primary Red, then add Zinc White until you have a very pale peach and paint the top of the dress. Using pure Zinc White straight from the tube paint the edges of the fabric over your pencil lines. Don’t worry too much about covering all of your pencil lines as some darker lines will read as shadows and will help to define the dress. 



Step 16

Just as we did with the hat, to make the cape read as white we need to paint the shadows cast by the folds in the fabric. Go back to the Burnt Umber/Primary Blue mix that we used on the hat and add a touch more Burnt Umber to make a brown-grey, and dilute with water until it is quite pale. We’ll use this to define the cape.  Start on the far left of the painting behind the lady’s right arm and paint along the fold line, then blend inwards with water. Repeat this from the outside of the cape leaving white inbetween the two lines that you have just painted. Next paint a line along the bottom of the cape, a little in from the edge, and paint a line up the fold right over the arm.  Now paint in the pointed underside of the cape by the outside of the elbow, and paint along the line of the underside of the cape by her inside elbow. 


Step 17

Using the same Burnt Umber/Primary Blue mix, paint in a few lines on the cape at the top of the shoulder and soften by tickling with a damp brush. Add two fold lines by the top of the dress. Now add water to your mix to dilute the colour and paint in a few patches where the fabric is gently undulating and casting shadows.


Step 18

Moving on to the opposite side of the cape, paint a line down the inside edge to give it depth. Add a small line on the shoulder, then add more water and paint in a few soft undulations where the fabric follows the contour of the left arm. Add a touch more Primary Blue to make you mix tend towards blue rather than brown and add in a wiggly line on the white fabric on the lady’s wrist.


Step19

Now for the squirrel. Pick up a small amount of Burnt Sienna from the tube and wipe it onto your palette, near to your Burnt Umber and Yellow Ochre.  Dampen the whole of the squirrel with clean water and wait for it to dry to a sheen. Before it has completely dried, tickle in an undercoat of Yellow Ochre. When this layer has dried, go back in and strengthen the Yellow Ochre along the upside of the tail, front and back and legs, and the top and bottom of the face.


Step 20

Dilute the Burnt Sienna and paint a layer over the top of the squirrel. You should be able to see the yellow ochre under layer showing through.



Step 21

Using Burnt Umber define the darker areas of the squirrel – under the chin, under the foreleg and hindleg, across the back and up the tail. Work in the direction of fur growth using small strokes of the brush. Paint the eye with neat Burnt Umber and when this is dry, add a tiny spec of neat Zinc White in the centre of the eye to highlight and bring it to life.  The pet squirrel is on a chain, so dot in a tiny line from the underside of the squirrel’s front leg across to the lady’s hand. It goes behind the back leg, so there is no need to show the chain here. 




I cannot see a signature on Holbein’s original painting so we shall call this done. I made a simple frame for mine out of lollipop sticks, and painted it using copper acrylic paint to compliment the squirrel.






If you have a go at any of my painting tutorials I’d love to see your artwork, you can share it here, on my facebook page or email it to me

You can see A Lady with a Squirrel and a Starling, around 1526-8, by Hans Holbein the Younger at The National Gallery, London, and online here http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/hans-holbein-the-younger-a-lady-with-a-squirrel-and-a-starling-anne-lovell 


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TOP TIPS FOR PAINTING IN GOUACHE

Always store your brushes flat, never resting on their points as this will damage them (either in or out of your water).

Gouache is very chalky and opaque. Before changing colours wash your brush in a series of two or three water pots, beginning in the dirtiest water pot and working towards the cleanest. You should find that this means that your clean water will stay clean for longer, you will need to change water less often and your colours will not get muddy. 

Watercolours and gouache can very easily form ‘cauliflower’ patterns if you add more water or more paint before the pervious layer has dried. Cauliflowers can be very beautiful in art, but they’re not what we’re looking for here. If you get cauliflowers with gouache don’t panic, just wait for it to thoroughly dry and then paint over it.

If you make a mistake lift off as much of the paint as you can with a damp brush and tissue, dab it dry then wait for it to fully dry, then simply paint over it.

When you leave your paints you do not need to cover them as it doesn’t matter if your paints dry out. You can reconstitute them very easily by adding a drop or two of water, and it’s a good idea to add a drop to each dried out paint puddle in your palette at the start of each painting session, then it’s ready for you when you need it.  When you need very strong colours use fresh paint from the tube. 

Remember we’re painting miniatures, you don’t need to squirt out a lot of paint from your tubes, the tip end of a small brush will suffice.


Saturday, 3 June 2017

Sketch Diary: Tilly the Guide Dog Puppy

Goodness it's been a long time since I posted on my blog! My time has been taken up with a few commissions and teaching my class, but mostly with this gorgeous bundle of fluff. She brings me such joy, as well as incredible frustration and the odd expletive...it's a good job I have an almost limitless supply of patience.

Tilly's first weeks with me are documented here

Rather than overload you with with months worth of sketches I'll go easy on you and upload them a few at a time (but if you can't wait and want to catch them all now you can head over to my facebook album here).

Here are weeks 13 to 19...








Tuesday, 31 January 2017

Tutorial: Norbert Goenuette's The Boulevard de Clichy under Snow, 1875/6

Famous Paintings in Miniature number 7: Norbert Goenuette's The Boulevard de Clichy under Snow, 1875/6






Click on the links below to see other tutorials in this series:









video



Norbert Goeneutte 


Norbert Goeneutte was born in Paris in 1854. Aged around 17 years old he joined the art school Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1872, where he studied for 4 years, learning landscape painting, etching and engraving.  He particularly enjoyed etching and engraving, and became a book illustrator during his career.

Gounuette painted this piece, The Boulevard de Clichy under Snow 1876, whilst still attending the art school and in 1876 he placed it in his first exhibition at the world famous Salon, the official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts.  Throughout his career he continued to exhibit with the Salon, declining to join his contemporaries and acquaintances the impressionists Manet, Renoir and Degas who had set up an alternative exhibition. We can see some impressionist influences in the way that Goeneutte has painted the snow in this piece.

Japonism, the influence of Japanese prints upon Western art, was popular among French artists at this time and there are definite Japanese print influences in this piece: the off centre composition, the lack of shadows and the dark almost floating figures in the foreground are examples of this. 

Perspective-wise, notice how all of the heads are more or less on one level – we get the impression of distance by placing the feet of the distant (and therefore smaller) people higher up the paper. This is a neat trick to remember when you’re painting a street scene.

You will need


  • Off-cuts of smooth mount board or other thick card
  • Sharp craft knife, cutting mat and steel ruler
  • Acetate and marker pen
  • Sharp Pencil
  • Gesso
  • Size 4 flat brush 
  • 2 x Size 00 round acrylic brush with a good point
  • Atelier interactive acrylics in: 
    • French Ultramarine
    • Burnt Umber
    • Tinting White
    • Yellow Ochre
    • Crimson
    • Burnt Sienna
    • Pthalo Green 
  • A stay-wet palette (I make my own using a plastic takeaway box with a layer of damp kitchen towel at the bottom followed by a layer of baking paper on top)

The Boulevard de Clichy under Snow


The Boulevard de Clichy under Snow, 1876, is painted in oils on canvas. To recreate the same look in miniature we need a support that will give the impression of a miniature canvas but without the weave of the canvas dominating the finished painting. I recommend using off-cuts of smooth mount board, easily obtained from a framing shop - if you ask nicely the proprietor will probably give you his off-cuts for free. 

Goeneutte’s painting measures 60 x 73cm. To find how big yours needs to be simply divide these measurements by the scale you're working in. On a 1:12th scale, dividing by 12 will give us = 5 x 6.1cm; for 1:16th we need to divide by 16 to get 3.75 x 4.58cm, for 1:24th divide by 24 giving 2.5 x 3.1cm. 

I'm working at a 1:12th scale.

Using your steel rule and craft knife, cut out the mount board to the correct size. If you want to frame your finished piece add at least a couple of millimetres all round to allow for mounting into the frame. I did not do this and lost a small amount of the painting at the end when I decided to frame it after all.

Apply 2 coats of gesso with a flat brush to prepare your canvas. This will stop your paints from soaking straight into the board. You'll need to leave it for at least a day to thoroughly dry.

Step 1

The drawing for this piece involves a number of straight lines. I usually banish rulers as they can make buildings look stiff and unnatural, however on this scale the brush strokes will soften those edges nicely so if you feel more comfortable with a ruler, go right ahead.

Divide your canvas into 4 x 4 equally spaced sections (you will need your ruler for this bit). They will not be squares since your canvas is rectangular, but I will call them squares for simplicity’s sake. 

Please draw your grid lines very faintly so that you don’t need to worry about paint coverage later on.
Starting in one of the corners, copy the black lines into your chosen square. Methodically moving from one square to its adjoining square, continue to copy the drawing until yours is complete. Try not to be tempted to jump around the grid – it is all too easy to make a mistake when counting squares and very frustrating to find that the drawing doesn’t meet in the middle!




Step 2

There are a lot of greys in this painting, mostly made up of French Ultramarine, Burnt Umber and Tinting White. Squeeze out a small amount of these three colours, with an extra squeeze of Tinting White. Mix equal quantities of Burnt Umber and French Ultramarine , then add Tinting White until you have a mid grey. Now add a small size 00 brush load of the mid grey to one of your Tinting White blobs and mix to a pale grey.




Step 3

Use the pale grey to paint in the sky using small brush strokes. Allow this to dry and then repeat with both the pale grey and tiny amounts of the mid grey, using a dry soft flat number 4 brush to blend. In particular, there are slightly darker areas around the right hand top corner edges. 




Step 4

Paint the grey buildings using your mid grey.  Colours get paler the further away from them you are as the atmosphere interferes with the light particles - adding pale grey to your mid grey as you recede into the distance gives the illusion of depth. Wet the small flat brush, dab it dry, and use it to tidy up the straight edges by mopping up from the sky-side. Providing the previous layer is dry you can use this technique wherever you go outside straight lines and need to tidy them up.




Step 5

Squeeze out a little Yellow Ochre into your palette. Make three small dots of Tinting White and add some of the Yellow Ochre to the first one. Add some of this new mix to the next dot of Tinting White and so on until you have three different strengths of Yellow Ochre/Tinting White. Use this to paint the yellow and cream buildings, again getting paler as the painting recedes.



Step 6

Squeeze out a touch of Burnt Sienna and use this to add in the reddish-brown sections of the buildings. Glaze over some of the mid grey buildings to add brown tones. Mix in some Tinting White and add lowlights to all of the cream buildings. This makes them look a little dirty and more lifelike. Next, using a dry brush, pick up the tiniest amount of Burnt Sienna, dab on a tissue and then using your brush almost horizontal to the page, gently brush over the tree area to give a foliage effect.

Mix equal quantities of Ultramarine and Burnt Umber, this will give you a very dark almost black colour. Add a tiny amount of water to get a single cream consistency and paint in the windows on all of the buildings, starting from the top of the window and moving your brush down each time. This creates shadows and depth. Add more water the further away you get to emphasise that feeling of depth. Next, paint under the eaves of the buildings to add shadows. 






Step 7

Before we start on the snow we need to warm up the greys a little. With the side of a dry brush, take some Yellow Ochre/Tinting White mix and wipe it on a piece of paper or your palette to make sure that there are no blobs. Then use the side of your brush to gently add some warm yellow highlights to the sky and the grey buildings.



Step 8

Before we start on the snow, take a white tea towel and drop it in an untidy heap on a clean table. Squint at it and observe how there are some hard shadow edges and some soft shadow edges that blend away to nothing. That’s all that snow is – a large white tea towel dropped over the landscape! The colours in the shadows of the snow are simply a reflection of the surrounding buildings and sky, so using those same pale greys and pale Yellow Ochre/Tinting White mix and a dry brush, scrape over a tiny area of snow. Use a clean small damp brush to blend out to nothing on one side or the other. Without having Geoneutte’s actual painting in front of you there’s no way you will be able to do this exactly as he did on this scale, so just have fun and go your own way. Repeat this all over your snow to get the desired effect. Remember to leave lots of pure white areas where the snow is glistening.




Step 9

Next we need to add in the harder shadows and dirt that is showing through. Use Yellow Ochre and Titanium White separately to add the dark shadows edging the road in the middle of the painting. Firstly paint Yellow Ochre over the pencil line and then blend with the Tinting White by dotting and dabbing randomly along the line. Use the same technique to paint in the tracks left by the gig. With hardly any paint on your brush, add in the lines to the right of the building on the left. Finally, dot in the foot prints around the people in the snow.




Step 10

Mix a touch of French Ultramarine with Burnt Umber to darken the brown and paint the carriages. Add a little water and underpaint the dark clothing on the people, leaving the top half of the central lady white.  The people in the background are simple dashes and dots – don’t try to add in details here.




Step 11

In three stages, darken the dress on the largest lady paying attention to the ruffles by dotting in darks randomly along the ruffle line. Darken the right hand side of her left arm and the bottom of the dress using small vertical lines to give a feeling of fabric. Pick up some Titanium White, which is your most opaque white, and paint in the little triangle between her right arm and body. Paint her hat using your darkest mix. 

Mix a touch of Yellow Ochre, Crimson and Tinting White until you have a Caucasian skin colour, and paint in her head. She is walking away from us so we need to add her hair in Burnt Umber to finish her off.

Repeat this process with the men on her right.




Step 12

Take a dry brush with a touch of Yellow Ochre and lightly brush over all three background tree areas. 

If you have some clear painting medium then add this to some Burnt Sienna (if you don’t have painting medium just add clean water) until you have an inky consistency. Use this to paint the tree trunks and a few branches. Trees don’t usually grow standing to attention so use a very gentle wiggly motion and lift your brush off the paper occasionally. 

Add a touch of Burnt Umber to the Burnt Sienna mix and repeat. 

Try to keep the first 2 trees in each row distinct from each other. The rest of the trees can merge together. 

With a clean slightly damp brush go along the bottom of each row of trees and smudge them – this will add shadows and place them firmly on the ground. 




Step 13

Turning to the townsfolk in the middle distance, paint the lady’s red coat in a weak Crimson. Allow your pencil lines to show through on the arms, this is where Goeneutte outlined in a dark colour. Use your skin tone to paint in her face, and finally dot in her hat with the Burnt Umber/French Ultramarine mix.

The person to the red lady’s left has a Yellow Ochre hat so we can dot this in, and she has a slightly darker top half to bottom half – simply dot over the top half with Burnt Umber/French Ultramarine.

The person to the right of the central trees is almost the same colour as the trees. Use Yellow Ochre/Tinting White for the bottom third and the Burnt Umber/Burnt Sienna mix for the top two thirds.




Step 14

Notice how tall the carriage drivers sit. Paint a dot for each head and a semi circle beneath the dot for the caped body using your dark Burnt Umber/French Ultramarine mix. The lady to the right of the distant carriage is wearing a big bustle so paint a small line on the left hand side of her body, a wiggle to the right and then a line down for the rest of her dress

There are a couple embracing on the left hand side by the building. Paint a straight line for the man using Burnt Umber/French Ultramarine, and then paint the lady in your mid grey mix. Add a tiny white dot to represent an arm.   




Step 15

Next we’ll add the details on the buildings. Dab a tiny amount of Pthalo Green into your palette and pick up the smallest touch you can. Paint over the grey line on the first building on the left. Add a dot to the back of the embracing lady. The very last building before the second set of buildings is also green, so paint this one in too. 

Paint the lit window on the next building along in Yellow Ochre/Tinting White and when this is dry add in a cross to represent the window frame. Add in the frame for the upper window, both of these using your thinned Burnt Sienna/Burnt Umber mix.

Go back to the first building on the left and paint the window display with Burnt Umber and Burnt Umber/Tinting White mix.

Run along the bottom edge of all the buildings with a very weak Burnt Umber mix to give a merest hint of a shadow in the snow.




Step 16

We’re going to paint the snowy roofs next, so firstly, change your water! Squeeze out some opaque Titanium White and move around the painting adding snow on the roof tops, carriage tops and also dot and dab some pure white around the ground taking care not to cover your shadows.  Next, pick up some Burnt Umber/French Ultramarine and paint slight lines under the eaves of the roofs where shadows are cast. Using the same mix, paint in the chimneys and a very slight horizontal shadow on the larger of the roofs.




Step 17

Finally, we need to sign the painting. Practice Goeneutte’s signature on a scrap of paper before signing in the bottom left hand corner.  Goeneutte used paint but on this scale that would be incredibly difficult so I recommend using a very sharp pencil.  




And there you have it!




“The Boulevard de Clichy under Snow” 1876, is owned by the Tate and is on loan to the National Gallery. Unfortunately it is not currently on display however you can see it online here http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/goeneutte-the-boulevard-de-clichy-under-snow-n04538


If you have a go at any of my painting tutorials I’d love to see your artwork, you can share it on my facebook page or email it to me at StephanieGuyFineArt@gmail.com




TOP TIPS FOR WORKING WITH ACRYLICS

To make my own stay-wet palette I use a small plastic takeaway box lined with wet kitchen roll on the bottom and greaseproof paper on top. When I leave my paints for any length of time I simply put the lid on and the paints stay workable. 

Always store your brushes flat, never resting on their points as this will damage them (either in or out of your water).

Wash your brush in a series of three water pots, beginning in the dirtiest water pot and working towards the cleanest. You should find that this means that your clean water will stay clean for longer, you will need to change water less often and your colours will not get muddy. Dry your brush on an old rag or piece of kitchen towel before picking up fresh paint. 

Always wash your brushes before leaving them for any length of time. Dried acrylic is difficult to get out of brushes and will ruin the flexibility and point of your brush.  

If you make a mistake, don’t panic! Either wipe it off with a damp tissue or wait until it is touch dry and paint over it.

If paints in your palette begin to form a film, spray with water.

If your paints feel too thick, you can dilute with a small amount of water or a medium such as Atelier Interactive’s Clear Painting Medium. 

If the paint on the brush becomes blobby, clean it and pick up more paint with the tip of the brush. For very fine brush work roll the loaded brush against your palette or a scrap of paper until the bristles come to a fine point.

Remember we’re painting miniatures, you don’t need to squirt out a lot of paint from your tubes, just a pea sized blob at a time will suffice.

Wednesday, 14 December 2016

Tutorial: Monet's Waterlilies 1916-1926

Famous Paintings in Miniature Number 6: Monet's Waterlilies

In this, the sixth in my famous paintings in miniature series, I will be showing you how to recreate Monet's Waterlilies, 1916-1926



Click on the links below to see other tutorials in this series:








video


Monet

Claude Monet (1840-1926) was born in Paris and grew up in Le Havre, where his artistic career began during his teens. Monet was gifted with a pencil and paper and he quickly learned that he could earn good money drawing and selling charcoal caricatures of the townsfolk. He was quickly talent-spotted by the artist Eugene Boudin who encouraged him to turn his hand to painting landscapes in the great outdoors - a direction that was only possible through the relatively new invention of oil paint in tubes in 1841. 

In 1859, aged 19, Monet travelled to Paris to develop his artistic career, where he studied at the Académie Suisse. During his time in Paris he met many artists including Renoir, Sisley and Bazille, and the four of them would often go on en plain-air painting trips together, bouncing ideas of each other. They would later go on to form the impressionist movement, which was predominantly grounded in painting outdoors. 

In 1874 Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Manet and others were struggling to get their work accepted into the conventional Salon, so they banded together to form the “Société Anonyme des Artistes, Peintres, Sculpteurs, Graveurs etc” as an alternative. At their first exhibition the title of one of Monet’s works, “An Impression, Sunrise” gave the whole impressionist movement its name. 

In 1883, aged 43, Monet moved away from the city and settled in Giverny, where he diverted the local river and built a waterlily pond in his garden. As with many of his subjects, he obsessively paint this same scene over and over again in different light and weather conditions. There are over 250 paintings of this pond, and he probably destroyed many more through self-doubt and depression. 

Towards the end of his life Monet suffered from cataracts and was almost blind when he died in 1926. In the last 10 years of his life he painted a series of very large canvases, 12 of which were promised to the French nation as a monument to peace and are now on display at the museum of the Orangerie in Paris. 

Waterlilies

The canvas that we are going to reproduce, “Water-Lilies”, is one of the set painted between 1916-1926 that was not promised to the French nation and is currently on display in room 43 at the National Gallery in London. It is a VERY big painting so please consider where you will display it before you work out which scale to work in. It may more practical to choose a scale that is not accurate for your house but will at least fit inside it!

Monet worked his paintings on canvas. To recreate Water-lilies in miniature we need a support that will give the impression of a miniature canvas but without the weave of the canvas dominating the finished painting. I recommend using off-cuts of smooth mount board, easily obtained from a framing shop - if you ask nicely the proprietor will probably give you his off-cuts for free. 

You will need:

  • Off-cuts of smooth mount board or other thick card
  • Sharp craft knife, cutting mat and steel rule
  • Acetate and marker pen
  • Pencil
  • Gesso
  • Size 16 flat brush 
  • Size 4 round acrylic brush with a good point
  • Size 00 round acrylic brush with a good point
  • Small bristle fan brush
  • Atelier interactive acrylics in: 
    • French Ultramarine 
    • Tinting White
    • Yellow Ochre 
    • Arylamide Yellow Light 
    • Crimson 
  • A stay-wet palette (I make my own using a plastic takeaway box with a layer of damp kitchen towel at the bottom followed by a layer of baking paper on top)

Step 1

Monet’s painting measures a huge 200.7 x 426.7 cm. That’s over 4 metres long so think carefully about where you will display your miniature version of this piece before you start! To find how big yours needs to be simply divide these measurements by the scale you're working in. On a 1:12th scale, dividing by 12 will give us = 16.7 x 35.5cm; for 1:16th we need to divide by 16 to get 12.5 x 26.7cm, for 1:24th divide by 24 giving 8.36 x 17.8cm. This would be a good piece for those of you who like to work in 1:48th scale as your measurements will be 4.2 x 8.9cm.

I'm working at a 1:12th scale.

Using your steel rule and craft knife, cut out the mount board to the correct size and apply 2 coats of gesso with a flat brush to prepare your canvas. This will stop your paints from soaking straight into the board. You'll need to leave it for at least a day to thoroughly dry.


Step 2

The drawing for this piece is very straight forward, we just need groups of lily pads in the right places. I recommend using a simple grid, keeping your grid lines and pencil marks as faint as you can.

Divide your canvas into 4 x 4 equally spaced sections. They will not be squares since your canvas is rectangular, but I will call them squares for simplicity’s sake. For this article I have drawn my gridlines heavily so that you can see them, but please draw your grid lines very faintly so that you don’t need to worry about paint coverage later on.

Starting in one of the corners, copy the black lines into your chosen square. Methodically moving from one square to its adjoining square, continue to copy the drawing until yours is complete. Try not to be tempted to jump around the grid – it is all too easy to make a mistake when counting squares and very frustrating to find that the drawing doesn’t meet in the middle!




Step 3

Cut a piece of acetate or cellophane and trace your drawing using the marker pen. If your acetate is larger than your canvas then remember to mark the corners so that you can match it up with the canvas later on. 




Step 4

Squeeze out 5cm of Tinting White and a small blob of French Ultramarine. Add the blue to the white to loosely mix a pastel blue.




Step 5

Using the size 16 flat brush entirely cover your canvas in pale blue. Make the blue varied in colour and texture across the whole piece, using different directional brush strokes. You will cover your pencil marks completely – this is why we have made the acetate so that we can position our lilies correctly later. 




Step 6

Squeeze out some Yellow Ochre and mix with the white. Then add this mix to the edge of your pastel blue until you have a very pale green-gold. 




Step 7

Once the blue paint in your canvas is touch dry, place your acetate over it to locate the position of the main lily pads. You can gently mark them in pencil over the blue paint if it will help you. Then, using the green-gold and a size 4 round brush, very loosely mark them out.




Step 8

Quickly blend the lilies using the small fan brush




Step 9

Squeeze out a very small amount of Burnt Sienna. Spread the edge out thinly in your palette and pick up a tiny amount on a clean size 4 round brush. Twirl this around against a clean section of your palette so that you have the tiniest amount of paint along the outside edge of your brush.




Step 10

Using the side edge of your brush, apply the Burnt Sienna to the top right hand corner of the painting. This is known as a dry brush technique. 




Step 11

Work your way around the whole of the top right hand quarter adding Burnt Sienna using the dry brush technique. Notice that except at the very top of the painting, the majority of the brush strokes are directional, with your brush moving from bottom to top. 




Step 12

Continue in the same way for the bottom right. 



Step 13

Now complete the bottom left





Step 14

And the top left.



Step 15

The whole piece should look something like this.




Step 16

Squeeze out a tiny amount of Crimson and using the dry brush technique with the tiniest amount of paint on your brush, scrub over the top right hand quarter of the painting using horizontal strokes. Take care to leave some areas without any red as per the photos.




Step 17

Repeat for the bottom right hand quarter. 




Step 18

More of the same for the bottom left hand quarter.



Step 19

And the top left hand quarter. 




Step 20

Mix Yellow Ochre, French Ultramarine and plenty of Tinting White until you have a green-gold similar to the one in SG 05. Then add a touch more blue to one side of your mix. Use the darker of these colours to add in the green in the top right with your number 4 round brush and the dry brush technique. Occasionally add in some of the lighter green-gold for variety. 



Step 21

Continue in the same way in the bottom right hand quarter. You can use your acetate overlay to help you identify where the vertical strokes need to be.




Step 22

The bottom left hand quarter also uses vertical strokes




Step 23

The top left hand quarter uses horizontal strokes.




Step 24

The whole should look something like this.




Step 25

Add a very subtle layer of Burnt Sienna over the green gold, again using the dry brush technique.




Step 26

Now we’re going to swap to the size 00 round brush and look at the lilies in detail, beginning with the top right section. Using the darker of the green-gold mixes, add in some lowlights.




Step 27

Mix a small amount of Arylamide Yellow Light and Tinting White with the palest of your green gold and use this to add highlights, keeping the lines as vague as possible.




Step 28

Using pure Tinting White on the tip of your size 00 brush, sweep in the white highlights on the lily pads. Next, dab in 3 marks each for the lily flowers on the right hand side.




Step 29

Smudge in a little crimson at the base of the flowers and inside the white sweep on the left hand lily.



Step 30

Moving on to the middle right hand batch of lilies, add Arylamide Yellow Light in a circulare sweeping motion to the lilies that you already have, plus a couple more above.




Step 31

Add pure Tinting White, again in broken circle motions both on and around the lily pads.




Step 32

Pick up a touch of Burnt Sienna and brush most of it off in your palette or on a scrap of paper. Then add in the faintest hint of colour on the top of the middle two lilies.




Step 33

Now we’ll move on to the bottom right lilies. Using the green-gold mix, add lowlights to the lily pads and strengthen the vertical pond weed marks. Add in a touch of pure Yellow Ochre to the centre of the dominant pond weed, again using a vertical brush stroke.




Step 34

Add Tinting White highlights on the lily pads and around to create ripples in the water. Using a mix of French Ultramarine and Tinting White that is slightly darker than your background, paint in lowlights to accentuate the ripples.




Step 35

Let’s move on to the lily pads in the bottom left hand corner. Add a touch of Arylamide Yellow Light to a section of your green-gold to warm it up a bit. Using the tip of your 00 brush add warm lights to the top of the lily pads and then use the side of your dry number 4 brush to scrub in some warmth all around this bottom quarter. Leave some areas without the warmth for contrast and interest.



Step 36

To create a sense of movement around these lily pads use Tinting White to add in ripples and highlights. Next pick up some of your original green-gold and paint this in next to some of your ripples to create depth. Add a touch of French Ultramarine to the green-gold and use this to add depth to some of your other ripples. The most central ripples are given depth by using French Ultramarine mixed with Tinting White that is a shade darker than the background blue.




Step 37

Finally for this section we need to add in the flowers. Pick up a tiny amount of Crimson on your size 00 brush and wipe most of it off against the side of your palette. Then paint in the 5 flowers beginning with the one on the right and working left. The two at the top left are barely there at all. Next add pure Tinting White to create the highlights.



Step 38

Now for the final set of lily pads in the top left hand quarter. Using pure Arylamide Yellow Light and a horizontal stroke with your size 00 brush, add highlights to your lily pads. I found my acetate drawing very useful at this point to confirm where they should be.




Step 39

In the same way as the bottom left lily pads, we need to create movement. Using Tinting White, green-gold and the French Ultramarine/green-gold mix, add ripples and shadows. Most of the brush strokes are horizontal with the occasional wiggle.




Step 40

As before, use tiny amounts of Crimson to dot in the flowers, and then go over parts of the Crimson with pure Tinting White to add highlights and blend in the red. 




Step 41

Moving on to the final set of lily pads at the very top left, use your three shades of green-gold and Tinting White to create the hints of the lily pads. There are no distinct pads here, just greenery and ripples in the water.




Step 42

As before, dot in the Crimson red flowers and then highlight with Tinting White.




Step 43

Take an objective look at your painting. Step back and squint at it, hold it up to the mirror, take a photo of it on your phone or digital camera – any of these techniques help to create some distance between yourself and your work, and usually any errors will jump out at you. Study it carefully and make improvements where necessary. Any areas that are too blue can be toned down with green-gold using vertical strokes and the dry brush technique.




Step 44

Finally, we need to sign the painting. Practice Monet’s signature on a scrap of paper before signing in the bottom right hand corner. Monet used paint but on this scale that would be incredibly difficult so I recommend using pencil. 




And we're done!



If you have a go at any of my painting tutorials I’d love to see your artwork, you can share it in the comments below, on my facebook page or email it to me. 

You can also comment below if you need help with any of these instructions.

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TOP TIPS FOR WORKING WITH ACRYLICS
To make my own stay-wet palette I use a small plastic takeaway box lined with wet kitchen roll on the bottom and greaseproof paper on top. When I leave my paints for any length of time I simply put the lid on and the paints stay workable. 
Always store your brushes flat, never resting on their points as this will damage them (either in or out of your water).
Wash your brush in a series of three water pots, beginning in the dirtiest water pot and working towards the cleanest. You should find that this means that your clean water will stay clean for longer, you will need to change water less often and your colours will not get muddy. Dab your brush on an old rag or piece of kitchen towel before picking up fresh paint. 
Always wash your brushes before leaving them for any length of time. Dried acrylic is difficult to get out of brushes and will ruin the flexibility and point of your brush. 
If you make a mistake, don’t panic! Either wipe it off with a damp tissue or wait until it is touch dry and paint over it.
If paints in your palette begin to form a film, spray with water.
If your paints feel too thick, you can dilute with a small amount of water or a medium such as Atelier Interactive’s Clear Painting Medium. 
If the paint on the brush becomes blobby, clean it and pick up more paint with the tip of the brush.
Remember we’re painting miniatures, you don’t need to squirt out a lot of paint from your tubes, just a pea sized blob at a time will suffice.

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You can see Monet’s water-lilies at The National Gallery, London, and online here http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/claude-monet-water-lilies